Hajjaj bin Yusaf was deeply mortified at two succesive failure of the expedition of Sind to take revenge on the Sindhis, he fitted out a third expedition under the charge of his cousin and son-in-law, Muhammad bin Qasim. Under Hajjaj’s patronage, Muhammad bin Qasim was made governor of Persia, where he succeeded in putting down a rebellion. At the age of seventeen, he was sent by Caliph Al-Walid I on the recommendation of Hajjaj to lead an army towards South Asia into what are today the Sindh and Punjab regions of Pakistan. S. M. Ikram pays tribute to Muhammad bin Qasim thus, “He combined great courage and resourcefulness with moderation and statesmanship of high order. . . he was methodical, disciplined, shrewd and humane individual displaying political sagacity and military skill far above his years. He had a warm, humane personality ready to enjoy the honour of new and old situations: with all this he was disciplined soldier.”

Character of bin Qasim

The military and the administrative success of Muhammad bin Qasim form one of the most brilliant chapters in the history of the Muslim rulers of Indo-Pakistan. He was a born leader and a man of versatile genius. He was a poet, a patriot, a statesman and an accomplished administrator. His tender age, impressive figure, his dauntless courage and noble bravery, his brilliant victories in battles and wise method of administration and lastly his sudden and tragic end make the story of his short and illustrious life one of the romances of history. He was strong against opponents and tender-hearted to his friends. According to al-Marzubani, Muhammad bin Qasim was one of the great men of all times. ~Heal

An able General:

The army of Raja Dahir was inferior in technical skill and his commanders were inferior in generalship, Muhammad bin Qasim, a young man of 17 was an intrepid and skilful general, and the success of the Arabs in Sind was largely due to his able generalship.

Far sighted statesman:

Muhammad bin Qasim was a far-sighted statesman and great politician. He did not disturb the existing system of administration in Sind. He placed the entire machinery of internal administration in the hands of the natives. The people who had occupied key posts in the time of Dahir, were expected to know all about the land. According to Chach Nama, Reposing full confidence in them, Muhammad bin Qasim entrusted them with high offices and placed all important affairs of the place in their hands”.

Toleration to the subjects:

He was not only a great warrior and conqueror but also a good administrator. The administration introduced by him leads us to believe that he possessed great experience in the art of administration. Some of the temples were no doubt destroyed during the days of war, but that was a temporary phase, for the destruction of the temple was due not to religious bigotry or fanaticism but to the fact that the temples were the repositories of India’s age long accumulated wealth.

He adopted kind and conciliatory policy towards the subject. The Brahmins were permitted to perform their rites and ceremonies in the manner prescribed by their religion. He granted the population of Sind the right to life and property in lieu of their submission and willingness to pay taxes to the Muslim administrator.

Tragic End:

Muhammad bin Qasim met his tragic end in the prime of his life in 715. His death checked the further progress of the Arab arms. The Khalifah Sulayman was an arch enemy of Hajjaj bin Yusuf and Muhammad bin Qasim being his cousin and son-in-law fell a victim to his wrath. He was arrested and sent to Mesopotamia where he was tortured to death. Thus ended the bright career of the great hero who had laid he foundation of Muslim rule in the sub-continent.


“We’re sparrows of paradise, and they don’t like us.” Sad words by Third Genders.

Third Gender referred as Hijra in Pakistani society i.e. eunuch or hermaphrodite. They consist of hermaphrodites and women generally unable to lead normal life, unable for marriage and producing children. Most of them are close to men but they prefer to be identified as feminine then masculine due to their inclination to lead a life of women. A sociologist describes them as “man minus maleness” and “man plus woman”.

Fake smile on their face, adorn themselves with kajal, makeup, lipstick, dressed in colorful saris, in a monstrous parody of women in a unique style, they roam the busy marketplaces in groups for their earnings. Shouting with the male voices, palms meeting crossways in a trademark clap, they prey on liable passersby, , who will part with their cash sooner to get rid of them.

Third Gender – mostly castrated male has a long history date back to 9th Century B.C. They were in popular demand to guard royal harems. The practice believe to have started in China, where eunuchs were entrusted with the task of protecting royal harem and similarly, they were preferred over other genders due to their weak characteristics and coward attitude. They were not expected for some kind of thread which could be vulnerable for the royal harem.

The golden era for third gender was during the time of the Mughal monarchs, from 1526 to 1857, when eunuchs and hermaphrodites oversaw the harem, often becoming key advisors. According to the modern generation, “our forefathers served the Mughals in the palaces, and people wanted to learn from them because they were great people”. Their status deteriorated with the devastation of princely rulers and finally fettered to begging. By then the third gender is considered social outcasts, existing in a strange, and no man’s land.

After 1870, however, British morality laws such as the Criminal Tribes Act and the Dramatic Performance Act restricted the activities of hijra and their inheritance and other rights, tarring them as “sodomites.” The British rulers in colonial India stripped the hijras of the laws that granted them the protection they received under Muslim rulers and regarded them as a menace to society.

In Muslim societies and cultures people are usually expected to behave in line with their biological sex (and/or attributed gender identity) and they are given a gender role in line with this: either male or female. For transgender people, as well as for people who are content with their gender identity but not with their gender role, these distinguished gender roles (constructed according to biological sex), are problematic.

There has been little scholarly work done in this area that is accessible. Some Muslim scholars have written about the division of gender in Islam in four groups: male, female, hermaphrodites (khunsa) and mukhannis. Mukhannis are biological males who identify as female and want a change of their biological sex. Mukhannas are biological males who assume a female gender role but do not wanr a change of their biological sex. The terms khunsa, mukhannis or mukhannas are not mentioned in the Qur’an.

There are hadith referring to men and women who do not behave in line with their prescribed gender role (e.g. a hadith in Sunan Abu-Dawud, (Bk. 32, No. 4087) referring to men who dress like women being cursed and a hadith instructing people to turn out of their houses effeminate men and women who assume the manners of men). However, as mentioned in the section on ‘Frameworks for Progressive Islam’ a number of scholars have exposed the problematic nature of Hadith as a source of Muslim laws.

In most Muslim laws and societies, transgender people who’s bodies have both male and female characteristics (hermaphrodites or intersex people), are allowed, or even encouraged, to undergo surgery to make their bodies in line with the sex and gender division into male or female. However, for transgender people who’s biological sex is female but who’s gender identity is male (and vice versa) and for those who do not identify as either male or female or as both, this is usually more complicated.

Specific directives regarding eunuchs have not been covered in the Islamic Shari‘ah. Muslim scholars can form an opinion on this matter keeping in view the spirit of the Shari‘ah. There are two major viewpoints regarding eunuchs. According to the first view, eunuchs will be dealt with according to their apparent traits of gender. If their physical traits relate mostly to males, for example having a beard, they would be considered male and vice versa. The proponents of the second view hold that the religious decrees, related with sex discrimination, are not applicable to them at all. This entails that they are not obligated to wear the hijab and other obligations of similar nature.

In 1983 the Conference of Rulers in Malaysia decided that a ban of ‘sex change operations’ should be imposed on all Muslims, except for hermaphrodites. Also, ‘cross-dressing’ was prohibited. In 1988 Al Azhar, the highest Sunni Islamic authority in Egypt, gave a religious (legal) decision (fatwa) regarding surgical treatment of intersexuals stating that ‘it is permissible to perform the operation in order to reveal what was hidden of male or female organs. Indeed, it is obligatory to do so with the reason that it must be considered a treatment’.

Apart from begging their sources of income are many. It’s an age-old custom in the country to have third gender bless childbirths, weddings, housewarmings and other auspicious occasions. The eunuchs are believed to possess occult powers, and their blessings – and curses – are both considered potent.

They sing and dance and create a commotion outside the house until the mother has allowed them to look at the baby. Once they have blessed the child they demand exorbitant sums of money in lieu of their good wishes. The inspection also carries an ulterior motive. On rare occasions when the baby is born a eunuch, the hijras insist that the baby is given to them. Often, the families will comply to avoid humiliation in society, and the group will take the child away to their ghettoes to raise him as he should be: as one of their own.

Some believe they are simply born that way – males without the male genitalia – while others will tell you that they are really men who were forcibly castrated in their youth. Both views are true, though natural eunuchs are a very rare occurrence and castration isn’t always by force. An `operation’ as hijras call it, is cause for huge celebrations in the community. It is performed out of doors, and feasts, song and dance are rituals that attend the event, which is orchestrated by the head of the community known as Gurus.

Thereafter, the Guru takes over the proper upbringing of the newest member. Everything the young hijra learns about the clan’s customs and traditions is at the feet the Guru. His adopted family of fellow hijras provides a loving environment and he is fed, clothed and looked after well until he too feels a sense of security and well-being.

Treatment of third gender in hospitals is an issue of great concern because whenever one is admitted in hospital, the doctors never know whether to place them in the male or female ward. They condemn all, men and women and refuse to join either team. There are frightened of our society due to the alien attitude of the people.

They are the creature of God if our society don’t accept hem, the fell the same in their group as if they are the same blood. They do everything to take care of one another. Hijra have long been stigmatized and subject to discrimination and abuse in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, with its rigorously defined roles for men and women.

People don’t consider them as human beings. They don’t like to eat with them, drink with them or shake their hands, but they are full citizens of Pakistan like everyone else. But behind the merriment, hijra life can be lonely and dangerous in a conservative society such as Pakistan. More so they are also denied health and psychological/ psychotherapeutic assistance.

Desperate and unemployed youth is attracted to hijra community to earn this easy money. Secondly, ignorance toward psychological healing of problems in most of the low class families led their children to take shelter in the so-called safe haven of hijra community. Selling of children to hijra community due to poverty is yet another important reason for becoming hijra.

Beside this, educated English speaking class of eunuch is enlarging in Pakistan. They do not face this treatment because of their social and economic status in the society. They become fashion designers, interior decorators, hair stylists’ etc. It is true that human psychology is a victim to the hegemony of heterosexual society contrived by culture and society. But it is also sarcastic to blame whole society wrong in its demeanor against hijras. They have their part in fabricating this attitude toward themselves.

A great number of them are turning to prostitution, which goes against the hijra ideal of asceticism. Although nascent legal status is a first step, social acceptance is likely to take far longer. But Police officers and residents often beat, harass, rob and sexually abuse them. A general concept in society is established that “They pollute people’s morality.” The stigma attached to them since then has left them increasingly vulnerable to theft, attack and abuse in Pakistan’s male-dominated and often-feudal society.

Although most of them dress as women, they engage in activities that would be considered inappropriate for women of the subcontinent, such as dancing in public. They almost seem to be a caricature of women because hijras wear their hair long and wear saris and other traditional female dresses, whereas in modern society, the upper and middle class women cut their hair and wear more western clothes.

In a landmark decision in December, the Supreme Court ordered that they be protected from police harassment, be eligible for a separate gender category on ID cards and be recognized under inheritance laws. In addition to the order for government recognition, Chief Justice Iftikhar Chaudhry also issued a warning that the hijras’ rights of inheritance, which are often informally ignored, would be enforced.

Pakistan’s Supreme Court has issued a number of groundbreaking orders for the government and police to afford third gender the same civil rights as other citizens. Police have been warned to cease harassment and intimidation. Pakistan’s national database and registration authority, which issues ID cards, has been told to research a third option under the “sex” column.

Some sociologists and legal experts have suggested that eligibility for new ID cards or other benefits might require a physical exam and test to avoid fake cases. Complex issues still need to be resolved, including inheritance, whether hijra merit special job or housing quotas, election registration and their gender status on ID cards. The should be actively involved for raising awareness about AIDS because it is reported most of them are HIV positive.

Third gender want to be decaled eunuchs, if they are eunuch, then eununch should be written instead of men according to their demand. When they are searched at the airport and their ID says male but wearing a dress of women, is disgusting and intolerable for them as well the authorities.
Parents should be very careful about the children showing deviant behavior. If a boy behaves in girlish manner, he should not be encouraged. Rather, should be taken to psychiatrist immediately for necessary treatment. Parents should have an active eye on the activities of their children reaching the age of adolescence. They should check the company their children keep.

Government should more actively approach to homosexuals and develop public awareness program to handle the issue. Moreover, there should be complete record of born third gender on district level. So that these third genders can either be provided financial help publicly to restrain them from falling in socially unacceptable activities or assigned them quota in employment.

They hope that one day they will recover their glory and prestige with the help of courts and media and become useful citizens of the country. Moreover, it is also the responsibility of the society to treat them as human beings and bring a change in their unfamiliar attitudes towards third gender. They must have the rights to survive in the society instead to lead a life in seclusion.

Different Opinions about the motives of Mahmud:

Sultan Mahmud made seventeen expeditions into Indo-Pakistan and conquered a number of places in the sub-continent. But he didn’t establish his rule over them or annex any part of the conquered territories except the Punjab. Various opinions have been expressed by the historians about the motives of Sultan Mahmud’s invasions.
Dr. Ishwari Prasad in his book “Muslim Rule in India” says that, Mahmud came to India as religious zealot accompanied by men who were prepared to sacrifice themselves in what they deemed a sacred cause. He fully exploited the religious sentiments of his followers, though he found no time to make conversions from among the native population”.
Some say that “Mehmud was the greatest champion of Islam whose main motive in invading this country was to preach Islam by breaking the idols and desecrating the temples”. There are others who hold the view that “his chief motive was to loot the wealth of Indo-Pakistan. He was a raider in chief who in order to satisfy his thirst for wealth, “came, burnt, killed, plundered, captured and went away”. Still there are others who think and maintain that Mahmud was a great military general and conqueror and it was his ambition that brought him to this sub-continent. Thus there are different views about the motives of the Mahmud’s invasion and these views may briefly be discussed here.
Religious Motives:

There are writers who are of the opinion that chief object of Mahmud’s Indian invasion was to crush idolatry and spread Islam. According to them Mahmud had been especially engaged by Khalifah Qadir Billah of Baghdad to undertake the task of spreading Islam in India and Mahmud in his repeated invasions tried to plant Islam in India. He destroyed the great Hindu temples of Nagarkot, Somnath and other places and compelled thousand of Hindus including many Rajast to embrace Islam.
The age of Mahmud was not religious in character:

The view of the historians cannot be accepted in the face of facts. The age of holy war was over long ago. The idea of propagation of Islam had ceased to be considered a part of the duty of the sovereign at the time of Sultan Mahmud.
Professor M. Habib says in his book “Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni” that, “the non-religious character of his expeditions will be obvious to the critic who has grasped the salient feature of the age. It is impossible to read a religious motive into them”.
Himself a Muslim never forced religion on others:

was not a preacher, but a great conqueror. He was a pious Muslim but never forced his religion on others. Islam sanctions neither vandalism nor plundering motives of the invader.
Dr. M. Nazim is of the opinion in his book “Life and Times of Sultan Mahmud” that, Some Rajas are said to have embraced Islam, but they did so most probably as a political shift to escape the fury of the conqueror and returned to their faith as soon as he had turned his back on them”.
Sir W. Haig in his book “Cambrige History of India says that, “His religious policy was based on toleration and though zealous for Islam, he maintained a large body of Hindu troops and there is no reason to believe that conversion was condition of their services.”
It is a different thing if a Hindu Raja and his followers embraced Islam either for the fear of defeat or for enjoying privileges under Islam.
His army composed of a large body of Hindu troops:

The Hindu soldiers fought shoulder to shoulder with the Muslims against the common enemy. Had it been a Holy War, it would not have been possible to against their co-religionists. According to M. Elphinstone, “It is nowhere asserted that he ever put a Hindu to death except in battle or in the storm of a fort”.
Mahmud massacred a good number of Muslims in Persia and almost all his Central Asian expeditions were against his co-religionists. According to Dr. M. Nazim, “If he harassed the Hindu Rajas of India, he did not spare the Muslim sovereigns of Iran and Transoxiania.”
Religious liberty granted to the Hindus

Under his benign government the Hindus enjoyed complete religious freedom. He granted the Hindus separate quarters in Ghazni where they were at liberty to perform their religious rites and ceremonies. The Hindus were appointed to highly responsible posts and the names of Tilak Rai, Hazari Rai and Sonai stand out prominently in the military history of Ghazni. He also instituted a college and a market in Ghazni for the propagation of Hindu culture and Sanskrit works. If he was a fanatic, how could it be possible for him to do these things?
Destruction of temples was due to military programme:

Mahmud of course, destroyed some of the temples of the Hindus. This destruction of Hindu temples was a part of his military programme, for the temples were the repositories of accumulated wealth. There certain writers who blame Mahmud for “wanton destruction of temples”. But they have forgotten that it was only during war that the temples were destroyed. He never destroyed any temple in peace time nor did any temple suffer desecration at his hands, if he had not been aware of its riches. He was not actuated by a desire to punish the idolators nor to spread the faith of Islam.
The famous historian al-Beruni who was an eye witness says, “The treasurers were accumulated in the temples by the bounty of pious Hindus who had grown rich by selling their surplus produce to foreign merchants.”
Charge of invading India on religious ground was base less:

The temples were regarded as inviolate and some times even monarchs kept huge wealth in the safe custody at these temples.
According to Dr. Iswari Prasad, “The temples of India which Mahmud raided were store-houses of enormous and untold wealth and also some of these were political centers”.
Hence, the view of the critics that Mahmud invaded India again and again to preach Islam by breaking the idols and desecrating the temples is historically wrong and psychologically untrue.
Political Motive:

According to some historians Mahmud’s motive in invading India was to satisfy him ambition of conquest and to extend his empire to this country. There is no doubt that Mahmud was an ambitious man and it was but natural for him to cherish the idea of extending his empire to the east.
Invasions of India arouse out of political necessity:

This idea arouse out of necessity. The North-West Frontier of India occupies a strategic position and its occupation is of vital importance to the Kingdom of Kabul and Afghanistan. It may be mentioned here that Jaypal, the King of the Hindushahi kingdom of the Punjab, viewed the rise of the Ghaznavid power with great alarm and it was he who first invaded Ghazni during the time of Sabuktigin. Though he drank the cup of humiliation at the hands of Sabuktigin, the issue remained unsettled and when Mahmud ascended the throne, he took up the issue.
His motive to establish a Central Asian Empire:

Sultan Mahmud wanted to establish a Central Asian Empire and for this, he followed a policy of conquest and consolidation in the west. But in east Mahmud remained satisfied with the annexation of the Punjab and some other places such as Sind and Multan. These places formed the second line of his defense in the east and south-east. His Indian invasion was one of the political rather than religious interests.
Disloyalty of the Hindus:

In addition to the occupation of North-West Frontier in the interest of his kingdom, the violation of the terms of the treaty by the Hindu Rajas, the renouncing of allegiance to the Sultan, the political betrayal in the form of help to his enemies, the molestation of his Indian allies by their hostile neighbours and the rebellion of the Indian vassals compelled Mahmud to invade Indo-Pakistan.
Economic Motives:

According to S. M. Jaffar and Professor Habib, the real motive of Mahmud’s invasion of India was economic and not religious.
R.C. Majumdar in his book, “An Advanced History of India” says that, “Mahmud was neither a missionary for the propagation of religion in this country nor an architect of empire. The main object of his eastern expeditions seems to have been the acquisition of the “wealth of India” and the destruction of morale of its custodians.
Economic Necessity:

Mahmud was in need of Money and the fabulous wealth of India might have attracted him to the fertile plains of Hindustan. Whenever he led an expedition, he went back with enormous money in order to finance his campaigns against his Central Asian enemies and to build Ghazni into a great empire. Hence, it can be concluded that the real motives of Mahmud’s Indian invasions were economic-cum-political and not religious.
Was Mahmud a Raider?

Unlike other Central Asian rulers, Mahmud of Ghazni did not like to live here permanently. So after conquering the land and destroying the power of his enemies he went back to his own country. His invasions seem to be merely plundering raids and he appears to the historians of India more as raider than a conqueror. But his conquests in other direction and those in the sub-continent, though the later had little permanent result, speak positively of Mahmud as a great conqueror.
Mahmud availed the opportunity:

Mahmud fully realized the importance of wealth in attaining political power and when India offered him that chance, he availed himself of it. The money which he took from India was properly spent for the improvement of the capital. But one thing seems to be certain. His frequent raids must have caused hardship to the population of the north-western part of this sub-continent.

Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi was a man of ambition. Early in life he formed the resolve of spreading the faith of Prophet in distant lands his investiture by the Khalifah further sharpened his zeal and he made it obligatory on himself to undertake every year an expedition to Hind. According to Sir Henry Elliot, he led as many as seventeen expeditions. India with her myriad faiths and fabulous wealth presented a favourable field for the exercise of his religious and political ambitions. He was a pious Muslim who observed all the injunctions of Islam in his daily life, but he never forced religion on others. He knew the Quran by heart and possessed sufficient knowledge of the Hadith. He was a true Mujahid who worked for the cause of Islam. He crushed the idolatry and polytheism in India. As rightly said by M. Habib, “When he was breaking the idol of Somnath, the priests offered him immense wealth, only if he spared that remained of their god, but he replied that he wished to be known in the world as the Mahmud the breaker of idols and not as Mahmud the seller of idols”. (farishta) Mahmud paved the way for the propagation of Islam and Islamic empire in future. “The expedition of Somnath” says Dr. M. Nazim, “is one of the greatest feats of military adventure in the history of Islam.” Ishwari Prasad, “to the Muslim of his days, he was a Ghazi who tried to extirpate, infidelity in heathen land. He was an orthodox Sunni and took a keen interest in religion
Arab conquest of Sind was of great significance and impact, politically, socio-culturally, religiously, intellectually and even economically. Though the Arabs were not the actual conquerors of India, they were the path finders and torch bearers. The conquest was a great give and take. Historians attach little importance to Arab rule in Sind, but though the visible traces of Arab ascendancy have been obliterated, its invisible effects were many and far-reaching. Most of them, of course, relate to the province of Sind, which has been called “the Hijaz of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent”.

Effects of the conquest of Sind:

Lane Poole, “the Arab conquest of Sind is an episode in the history of India and of Islam, a triumph without result”.

Professor Syed Abdu Qadir Shuja-ud-Din, ” After the conquest of Sind a large number of scholars, traders inhabited in Sind. Local people embraced Islam. Today Sind is the same Islamic region like the Iraq and Egypt, in these circumstances we cannot deny the greatness of t

he Arab conquest of Sind, its historical importance and its consequences”.

M.Kabir , ” undoubtedly establishment of Islamic government in Sind is the greatest event in the history of Islam and sub-continent”.

1- Little effect in Political Sphere:

There is no doubt that Arab conquest was confined to Sind and Multan only and the major portion of northern India was not directly affected. Expeditions were send against Hindu princes of the north, but the Rajputs were too strong to be defeated. The sudden death of Muhammad bin Qasim and fruitless help of the Khalifah had greatly shaken the Arab stability in Sind. Within the decline of the power of the Khalifah, territories of Sind were divided into independent states.

a- Qasim’s attack revealed the political and military weakness of sub-continent:

The Indo-Pakistan sub-continent presented a chequered picture of warring dynasties and of small kingdoms hostile to one another on the eve of the Arab invasion. There was no central government in the country. All these states enjoyed complete independence and sovereignty. The same situation was on the occasion of the invasion of Alexander the Great. Throughout the history of the sub-continent they united on few occasions otherwise they were fighting for the supremacy on one another.

It was proved from the Muhammad bin Qasim’s invasion that people of sub-continent could not unite from against their common enemy. If they are managed to form a confederation against a common enemy then they also cannot get their goals. Because in their army there is lack of uniformity and discipline. They belong to different areas and princes thus could not fight bravely and secondly their main problem was lack of leadership. Thus the attack on Sind revealed their political and military weakness which were helpful for the establishment of Muslim Empire in the sub-continent in the later periods.

The arrangements made by Muhammad bin Qasim with the non-Muslims provided the basis for later Muslim policy in the sub-continent.

b- Arab soldiers settled:

Most of Arab soldiers settled in Sind for good and some of them married Sindi women. The Arab and Hindus lived side by side in peace and amity for a long time. The Arabs left a legacy behind in the shape of buildings or administrative or cultural institutions that might have exerted influence on India.

c- Legacy of Arab Administration:

The Arabs were not only great warriors and conquerors, but also good administrators. The administration introduced by Muhammad bin Qasim in Sind leads us to believe that the Arabs possessed experience in the art of administration and were not cruel and fanatic as it is general supposed by the people.

The Arab governors were farsighted statesmen and great politicians. They did not disturbed the existing system of administration in Sind. According to Chach Nama, “Reposing full confidence in them, Muhammad bin Qasim entrusted them with high offices and placed all important affairs of the place in their hands.” Steps were taken to improve and encourage agriculture and trade. Artisans and merchants were free from molestation.

Justice was administered without fear or favour. The Qazis who were well-versed in Islamic Law and Jurisprudence, filled the seats of Judgment. In matter of pubic and political offences the law made no distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims. Some cases among the Hindus were decided according to Hundu Law by the Panchayats.

When Muhammad bin Qasim was dismissed and arrested by the orders of Khalifah the people started worship of his statue due to his good administration and justice. The Arab administration was based on the principles of Justice, equality, toleration and welfare. It was a role model for the later Turk sovereigns.

d- Cantonments turned into big cities:

Muhammad bin Qasim was a genius administrator. He established many cantonments in different places for the internal peace, law and order and for discipline. He permitted the Arab soldiers to settle and marry with Sindi women. Mansura, Kanda, Baiza, Mehfooza and Multan were the famous cantonments of that time. These cities proved to be the centre of culture and civilization.

Dr. Ishwari Prasad, ” It may by conceded at once that the Arab conquest of Sind from political point of view, was an insignificant event in the history of Islam” The statement is nullified by the above mentioned facts.

2- Profound and far-reaching effect on culture

The establishment of Muslim rule in Sind had profound and far reaching effects in the field of culture and learning of the land. “The Arabs had brought with them a new religion and a new civilization which they introduced among the conquered people. They brought India into direct contact with the Islamic world and opened immense possibilities of commercial and cultural progress”. (K.Ali)

i- Social Effects:

Before the conquest of Sind the Arabs were not only nomads but also bandits. The were uncivilized. The terrirotory of sind became civilized after the invasaion of Arabs. They got awareness of law, its importance and obedience.
Until recently the social pattern in Sind was largely tribal, the place of Arab Shaikh being taken by the Sindi Wadera. The world Wadera itself is a literal translation of Arabic counterpart. Such Arab virtues as hospitality have always distinguished Sind, and the standard of Arabic scholarship has also remained high. After the interaction of two different nations a new civilization came into existence, whose vivacious example “Sindi Language” is still present today.

Arab scholars inhabited in Sind and several Hindu scholars embraced Islam and permanently settled in Arabia. The Muslim treated the Sindi generously and granted them complete religious freedom. In a result a lot of Sindi Brahman and Buddhist embraced Islam.

Arab had started some new kind of industries in Sind. They planted in Sind some new kind of plants. The Arab brought horse and camels Sind and still today they inhabitants use the camel.

ii- Religious Effects:

Toleration was shown by the Arab governors of Sind to their subjects irrespective of caste and creed. Some of the temples were no doubt destroyed during the days of war, but that was a temporary phase, for the destruction was not due to religious bigotry or fanaticism but to the fact that the temples were the repositories of India’s aglong accumulated wealth. Once a place was occupied and peace restored or the people submitted to the ruler and sought peace, the conqueror adopted a kind and conciliatory policy towards them. When the people of Brahmanabad, for instance submitted to the conqueror, they were allowed to rebuild their temples which were destroyed during the time of war.

The Brahmins were permitted to perform their rites and ceremonies in the manner prescribed by their religion. Hajjaj bin Yusaf sent a farman to Muhammad bin Qasim instructing him to grant the population of Sind rights to life and property in lieu of their submission and willingness to pay taxes to the Muslim administration. They were also given the right to perform their religious rites as they pleased.

The Arab believed on the policy of toleration, they have given complete religious freedom. They also given the permission to repair the ruined temples and construct the new ones. Due to the High moral and character the Muslims attracted the local population. In a result majority of the population of Sind accepted Islam.

Numerous Ulema, scholars, preachers, traders from Arabia settled in Sind. Ulema and Sufis had given great importance to the propagation of Islam and majority of the Sindis embraced Islam.

iv-Intellectual Effects:

The Arab acquired from the Hindus some new knowledge in Indian religion, philosophy, astronomy, medicine and folklore and carried it to their own country as well as to Europe.

Many of the Sanskrit works on astronomy and mathematics were translated into Arabic under the patronage of the Abbassid Khalifahs. During the reign of Harun-ar-Rashid Hindu scholars were invited to Baghdad to translate into Arabic Sanskrit works on medicine, philosophy, astronomy and other subjects. Similarly many Arab savants studied Sanskrit to satisfy their thirst for knowledge of Indian culture.

The digit system was first invented in the sub-continent. Arabs adopted that procedure. Even today the Arabic digits form one to nine are same like written in Hindi and these are called Arabic Numerals. Famous Arab mathematician Khuarzami translated Hindi mathematics into Arabi.

Once the Khalifah Harun-ar-Rashid fell ill. For his treatment a physician was called from the sub-continent. Khalifah recovered with his vedic treatment. After that vedic physician was appointed in the hospital of Baghdad. Hindi herbs were imported and several books on medicine were translated into Arabic.

Ishwari Prasad opines, “It must be admitted that Muslims soon secularized the learning they borrowed from India and presented it to the European world in a new garb which was perhaps more acceptable to the European mind”. Amir Khusrau mentioned that the Arab astronomer Abu Mashar came to Benares, the seat of Hindu learning, and studied astronomy there for ten years.

Thus we find that the exchange of ideas and the cultural contact between the Arabs and the Hindus were possible as a result of the Arab conquest. To the natives, particularly to the lower class, the Muslim rule symbolized prosperity and emancipation. This is why the Jats and the Meds accorded welcome to the Arabs by blowing conch-shell. So from the cultural point of view, the invasion of Sind cannot be regarded as an isolated military event.
The Arabs left a legacy behind in the shape of buildings or administrative or cultural institutions that might have exerted influence on India. The Sindi language shows Arab influence even today. It is wrong to say that the Arab conquest of Sind had absolutely no effect on India. (K.Ali)

K.Ali rebutted, “From the political, religious, social, cultural and literary point of view, the invasion of Sind cannot be regarded as an isolated military event. Hence the statement, that the Arab conquest of Sind was a triumph without results, cannot be accepted in toto”.