Hajjaj bin Yusaf was deeply mortified at two succesive failure of the expedition of Sind to take revenge on the Sindhis, he fitted out a third expedition under the charge of his cousin and son-in-law, Muhammad bin Qasim. Under Hajjaj’s patronage, Muhammad bin Qasim was made governor of Persia, where he succeeded in putting down a rebellion. At the age of seventeen, he was sent by Caliph Al-Walid I on the recommendation of Hajjaj to lead an army towards South Asia into what are today the Sindh and Punjab regions of Pakistan. S. M. Ikram pays tribute to Muhammad bin Qasim thus, “He combined great courage and resourcefulness with moderation and statesmanship of high order. . . he was methodical, disciplined, shrewd and humane individual displaying political sagacity and military skill far above his years. He had a warm, humane personality ready to enjoy the honour of new and old situations: with all this he was disciplined soldier.”
The military and the administrative success of Muhammad bin Qasim form one of the most brilliant chapters in the history of the Muslim rulers of Indo-Pakistan. He was a born leader and a man of versatile genius. He was a poet, a patriot, a statesman and an accomplished administrator. His tender age, impressive figure, his dauntless courage and noble bravery, his brilliant victories in battles and wise method of administration and lastly his sudden and tragic end make the story of his short and illustrious life one of the romances of history. He was strong against opponents and tender-hearted to his friends. According to al-Marzubani, Muhammad bin Qasim was one of the great men of all times. ~Heal
An able General:
The army of Raja Dahir was inferior in technical skill and his commanders were inferior in generalship, Muhammad bin Qasim, a young man of 17 was an intrepid and skilful general, and the success of the Arabs in Sind was largely due to his able generalship.
Far sighted statesman:
Muhammad bin Qasim was a far-sighted statesman and great politician. He did not disturb the existing system of administration in Sind. He placed the entire machinery of internal administration in the hands of the natives. The people who had occupied key posts in the time of Dahir, were expected to know all about the land. According to Chach Nama, Reposing full confidence in them, Muhammad bin Qasim entrusted them with high offices and placed all important affairs of the place in their hands”.
Toleration to the subjects:
He was not only a great warrior and conqueror but also a good administrator. The administration introduced by him leads us to believe that he possessed great experience in the art of administration. Some of the temples were no doubt destroyed during the days of war, but that was a temporary phase, for the destruction of the temple was due not to religious bigotry or fanaticism but to the fact that the temples were the repositories of India’s age long accumulated wealth.
He adopted kind and conciliatory policy towards the subject. The Brahmins were permitted to perform their rites and ceremonies in the manner prescribed by their religion. He granted the population of Sind the right to life and property in lieu of their submission and willingness to pay taxes to the Muslim administrator.
Muhammad bin Qasim met his tragic end in the prime of his life in 715. His death checked the further progress of the Arab arms. The Khalifah Sulayman was an arch enemy of Hajjaj bin Yusuf and Muhammad bin Qasim being his cousin and son-in-law fell a victim to his wrath. He was arrested and sent to Mesopotamia where he was tortured to death. Thus ended the bright career of the great hero who had laid he foundation of Muslim rule in the sub-continent.